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Roti, Chapati (Flat Indian Bread)

Roti, Chapati (Flat Indian Bread)


Roti also known as Chapati or Fulka, is Indian flat bread made with whole wheat flour. In North India, roti is part of the main meal. Roti is served with a variety of cooked vegetables, lentils, and yogurt.
4.34 from 6 votes
Prep Time 5 mins
Cook Time 10 mins
Total Time 15 mins
Course Main Course
Cuisine Indian
Servings 2 people


  • 1/2 cup whole-wheat flour chapati ka atta
  • 1/8 tsp salt
  • 1/4 cup water use as needed
  • 1/4 cup whole wheat flour for rolling the roti
  • 2 tbspa clarified butter or ghee for buttering the roties


  • Mix flour, salt, and water to make soft dough, adding water as needed. Knead the dough for about one minute on a lightly greased surface to make it smooth and pliable. Cover the dough with a damp cloth and set aside at least ten minutes.
  • Divide the dough into four equal parts. Make smooth balls and press flat. Before rolling the roti press both sides of the ball on a dry floured surface to make them easy to roll.
  • Roll to form a six-inch-diameter circle. Use just enough dry flour to roll the roti, as too much flour will make them dry. If the dough sticks to the rolling pin or rolling surface, lightly dust the rotis with dry flour.
  • Heat an iron or heavy skillet on medium high heat. To test, sprinkle a few drops of water on the skillet. If the water sizzles right away, the skillet is ready. Place the one roti into the skillet. When the roti start to change color and start puffing flip it over. There will be some golden brown spots.
  • Flip again after a few seconds. Using a flat spatula, press lightly on the puffed parts of the roti. This will help the roti puff up. Flip the roti again, until it has light golden-brown spots on both sides.
  • Repeat the same process for remaining roties. Butter the roti, the side that is facing the skillet.
  • Place the rotis in a container lined with a paper towel. Cover the container after each roti.


Roti can be kept outside for up to 2 days wrapped in aluminum foil or in a closed container. For later use, roti can be refrigerated for 5-6 days. Re-heat in a skillet
Keyword Chapati, Fulka, Healthy, Roti, Whole Wheat Bread
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311 thoughts on “Roti, Chapati (Flat Indian Bread)

  1. Hi Aunty,

    I want to know, what sheet u r using to roll roti. because in america i am not getting proper (flat surface )thing to roll my roti.
    U r my inspiration for cooking. and i am new to cooking.
    Thanks for ur videos.

  2. When I first made ​​my turn came about countries. Today I did again and I came out much better and smoother. But I was not swollen all around swell as you. Why?

  3. Hi,

    I noticed you mention using a skillet, the roti do not puff nearly enough for me that way. I start on the skillet then put them on the gas stove so they puff up. If you are having trouble with your roti, I suggest this method. Fire is best to cook them in my opinion.

  4. Hello!
    Im trying to live a more healthier way of living and I saw your recipe and I thought it would be good for my diet and also my budget.

    Im kinda new at cooking and I tried all purpose flour instead of using a commercialized one, was it a bad idea? and is it suppose to be somewhat soft or gooey in form or did i mess it up?

  5. I tried making this last night and only the last one turned out. The other three wouldn’t puff up properly and ended up just like crackers. I also wasn’t able to roll them out to be quite as big as yours.
    I think there are two things that prevented the roti from turning out: one, I probably didn’t knead enough, and 2, the pan wasn’t hot enough. Also, I’m in America and the gluten in our wheat is different from European flours; I imagine it would be very different from Indian flour. American flour has elastic gluten as opposed to plastic gluten; it stretches and bounces back rather than stretching and staying there. Am I right about what happened to my roti?

      1. Okay. Thank you for replying so promptly! I’ll try again tonight with another one of your curry recipes. I made your chole palak the same night as the roti and it turned out amazing. Thank you for your excellent recipes!

        1. Merci, get some actual chapati flour – it’s all I ever use for Indian bread. It’s different than American style whole wheat flour. The grind is different. I use Golden Temple Durum Atta. I’ve tried using American style whole wheat and even whole wheat pastry flour, they have never worked for me. Any Indian grocer will stock appropriate chapati flours.

          Some tips for making softer chapati/roti from http://www.indiacurry.com/bread/br003breadbasics.htm

          Tenderizing dough to make softer breads

          1. The starch in the flour absorbs moisture with heat. Always add warm water (near 100ºF) to make dough.
          2. Lactic acid and fat in the Yogurt tenderize gluten. That’s why buttermilk is added to make ‘biscuits’ in the United States. Replace water in part or whole with Dahi, or Buttermilk to make dough.
          3. Add shortening such as Ghee, butter or even milk to the dough to make it softer. These fats also add to the texture of the dough.
          4. Allow the dough to rest for about 30 minutes at room temperature, to permit the starches and glutens enough time to work through.
          5. If you stored dough in the refrigerator, let it come to room-temperature before rolling, otherwise the gluten will remain stiff resulting in hard bread.

          Many things can cause changes in the results for your chapati. Yesterday I made chapati in the afternoon in the same pan I usually use, then in the evening I thought I would use the cast iron griddle instead. The lunch chapati were fine, the cast iron chapati were awful. I have to relearn how to tell when the cast iron griddle is the right temp, it’s different. So while you’re learning, pick a pan and stick with it.

  6. Hi Aunty,
    I used to eat frozen chapati but I decided to buy chapati flour to save money although it is a little time consuming(for an inexperienced person like me). I made my first chapati, but it didn’t come out as expected. It was dry, yellow in color and had no brown spots.I dont know why this is.Please let me know if you have any idea.I would very much appreciate it.Thank you!!

  7. Hello,

    Where did you get your tavi and on what heat setting have you kept your electric stove? I am used to gas stove but will soon be moving and using electric any tips on using electric stove?

    On what heat setting should I keep it on if i need to make rice which have seperate grains rather than sticky grains.

  8. Hello Manjula,
    I just discoverd your recipes.
    I tried out to make some rotis yesterday. It turned out to be a flop :
    very dry, non puffy..
    I used a brown flour for chapati…
    what’s wrong?
    Thanks for your answer.

    1. I’m with Soraya. My rotis didn’t turn out well either. I used “stone ground” whole wheat flour, which looked browner and coarser than the flour Manjual used in the video. Maybe that was my mistake.

    1. If you’re talking about the large glass dishes then pretty much anywhere! If you mean the smaller ones she uses for spices, I’ve picked up those 3 for a $1 at the local dollar store (Dollarama, in this case).

  9. You can make it with any type of flour, but depending on the type of flour, you may need less or more water is the only major difference. Whole wheat flours need more water than standard flour, so you need to know when to stop based on the consistency of the dough. Just like you have to make adjustments to the water based on your altitude.

  10. hi Manjula,
    thank you so much for the recipes, so i wonder if is possible that i don’t use the whole-wheat flour but i use the strong flour or soft flour or even plaint flour? thanks ^^

  11. Hello, Dear Manjula,
    Thank you so much for this site and all the recipes. I’ve been using them for over a year now.
    But I’ve encountered a problem when making roties: they don’t puff up like yours on the video. I don’t know whats the problem: tried to roll them thiner-the same, thicker-the same; tried to cook over medium flame-same result as over high flame. I made a batch yesterday and today, they taste good, but I don’t think a good as yours. Please, tell me how you meke them puff like balloons.

  12. Hello Manjula,

    I have a question. I recently made roti with a bit chunkier flour than usual, and my rotis turned out chewy! Has this happened to you? Does this just happen with coarse flour, or should I use a bit more water and let it sit longer?

    Thank you.

  13. Hi bleached or unbleached if you want the roti to puff good let the dough get fermented a bit (by leaving the dough for a little while covered with wet cloth) and let the plate get hot enough to make the rotti. [ You can also show the roti direct to the sim flame on your stove, it will help the roti to puff good and if you want you can also split it in to two making the roti sooooooooooooo thin and with good taste]. Happy eating.

  14. I used to spend money buying this from the heath food store, because most have chemicals and preservatives in them in the local Markets.
    Now I can make this at home and my family loves them.
    Thank You,

  15. Thank you Manjula! I made baigan bharta and now I’m going to make rotis, thanks you … I have always loved Indian food but I have never had the confidence to make it myself. Thanks to you, I do now! Please keep making videos!

  16. Hi Manjula Aunty,
    I’ve been using whole wheat unbleached flour for making rotis. It doesnt turn out to be soft. Is unbleached flour the best to use or should we look out for bleached flour?
    Thanks in advance for your reply.

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  18. Dear aunty,

    I love your north Indian curries a lot.

    Even I love having tandoor roti, whenever i want to prepare it i used to bake it on wired pan (papad ka tava) but it will not be like tandoor roti it will be like pulkas. So could you guide me where can i get the stone. Or do you know any other alternate.

    While preparing tandoor roti you mentioned to use the pesai stone. Where shall we get this stone??

  19. Dear Aunty:
    please help. i’ve viewed your video on making chapati many times and you make it look so very easy. but each time i try it out, my dough turns out sticky, and then i end up adding extra flour which makes it hard. Help! what am i doing wrong???

    thanks very much Aunty!

  20. Manjula Aunty,
    I really appreciate your beautiful website. I love you for your simplicity and the delicious recipes that you share. I am a pretty good cook, but when it comes to roti I don’t know what goes wrong. I am not sure what I am doing wrong. Can you tell me what is the secret to soft rotis?

  21. Thanks for this fantastic website. My teenage son is a vegetarian and next year he is going on a trip to India (we live in Australia) where he will have to shop and cook for himself. I’m trying to learn to cook vegetarian Indian cooking so that I can teach him before he goes. I bought a cookbook from Amazon.com, but found all the ingredient bewildering and there were no pictures to show that I was on track. So I was thrilled to try your roti recipe and find it all worked just like in your video! Thanks so much. I’m looking forward to trying other recipe too.

  22. hello aunty,
    can u tell me how to preserve chapathi for a week.
    my plan is to make excess chapathi on weekend,so that on weekdays whn i come home after work,just heat chappati n eat.

  23. Namaste Manjula ji,

    I love your recipes too! I have visited India several times and miss the authentic cuisine I tasted there. I am so happy to see these genuine recipes.

    I have the same problem with getting the rotis to puff. I have tried making these several times. I use chapati flour. I think my rotis come out too hard, but if I make them wetter, they are too sticky to handle. The dough you made looks so silky soft.

    What am I doing wrong, please?

  24. I tried making the roti……I used Whole wheat flour and I tried the unbleached white whole wheat. I did a 1/2 cup flour, a pinch of salt, and 1/4 luke warm water. Mixed and added oil as you said. I let it sit for 10 mins, and I can not get it to puff out!! Any advice?? Am I using the wrong flour? I’ve tried making the roti 5 different times!!

  25. Dear madam,
    i have tried some of your recipes.it is really good and comes out the way you showed.my husband is leaving for france for 2 months.can you suggest some recipes for the 2 months.he will make rice in microwave oven.what should i suppliment him with?

    thank you

  26. Just wondering,
    you said 1 cup of flour, and half cup of water…
    but in the video you used 1 cup of flour, and 1 cup of water… so which is the best way?

  27. Hello Aunty,

    I love your recipes! I just had one question about the roti recipe. On your website it says if you want to make 8 rotis to use 1 c of flour and 1/2 of water, but in your video you make 4 rotis and you say to use 1/2 c of flour and 1/2 c of water…do you mean 1/4 c of water?

    Thank you!


  28. I have purchased the silpat (silicone mat) to make the roti as you show in this segment but it does not stay in place when I am rolling the roti on it. Any advice?

    1. I’ve not tried with a silpat, but when I have a cutting board that won’t stay still I put a damp kitchen towel under it to keep it steady.

  29. hi manjula ji,
    this is priya.. i have tried many of ur recipes at home.. and they came out really well… awesome recipes.. being a south indian, ive tried the north indian dishes and they were so delicious.. but i always have problem wit rotis/ chapathis.. they come out being very hard or become hard after 5 mins.. what kind of atta do u use..? do rotis come out well wit sujata atta..?

  30. Hello Aunty ,

    Is it possible to roll the chapathis and refrigerate for later use??(just thaw when we are ready to eat??)..Normally i get fluffy chapathis ..Yday i rolled my chapathis for my tiffin box and stored it in the fridge..morning i tried to thaw them ..but it didn’t come out good at all.Any suggestions??Thank you.I love all your recipes.

  31. Dear Manjula,

    I really appreciate your videos for so many reasons 🙂 I was not taught these recipes growing up. I found myself yearning to become closer to Desi culture as I grew older due to the lack of it during my younger years, learning these recipes helps me to become closer to it. I thank you!!!!! Please continue to share your talents with us.


  32. Hello Manjula ji,
    It’s great to see your excellent recipes. I get time to cook only once in a months time. Please let me know how can I reserve cooked parathas and rotis for at least thirty days.
    Dr. Sudha Madan

  33. Hi Manjula,

    I am living in germany. My daugther visited me during chrismas and her gift for me were all your wunderfull spices, she cooked your recipes ..and at the end I got a virus named “Manjula *g*!
    Now I`m learning from you every day and night. You are very sympathic and it is a pleasure for me to learn delicious recipes from you. Thank you very much for this.
    But do me a pleasure..just smile a little bit in your next video; just for me, will you please?
    A big hug and alle the best for you in 2010!

  34. I have been trying to make rotis for a good while and you make it seem so peaceful and easy. After watching your video and after trying several times, I finally accomplished a roti! Thank you for your videos. I love them!


  35. Dear Manjula Im Brazilian girl trying to make Indian Receips, but sometimes its so hard to find in Brazil some ingredients,
    I have one doubt in Samosa, its really necessary to use Semolina Flour?

    Thank you so much!

  36. thanks a lot for the correct amount of the ingredients because it was always confusing for me..until the making of these rotis i think i am pretty good but the softness of the rotis is still an un answered question..how to correct that deedi…please help

  37. Hi Aunty

    Im jus cooking for abt 6 mnths. Oly after seeing ur videos i got the confidence to try out chappati. But my first rial s a flop. I culd nt understand wat might ve gone wrong. Its not puffing up. May be im rolling it tooo thin??? I need ur help here. Also it ll b great if u guide me in choosing chappati flour. Thnak u soo much 🙂

  38. Hi Manjula ji,

    Your recipe has been very helpful for me, but I need to know that one cup makes 8 rotis.. what should be the size of each ball approx… my chapatis puff up but are a bit thick.. maybe i take more dough in each ball.. kindly guide..

  39. What a great video! Mine also did not bubble up (though they still tasted good!) so I will look forward to hearing any additional hints about that. I will start by kneading more next time and maybe using more water. (They seemed too dry to bubble.) Anyway, thank you!

    1. For as simple as these little breads look, it takes practice to start to get them right (the right dough, rolling it out, and the right stove temperature).

      To puff, there has to be enough water to create steam while the bread is cooking. If a crack develops while cooking, the steam will escape but your bread should still taste good.

      It’s a fine line between rolling it too thick or too thin. What’s important is to try to roll it evenly so one area isn’t thin and another thick.

      Keep practicing! We’ve all been there. 🙂

  40. Dear aunty,

    I knead the dough well and keep it for 10-15 mins before making roti. But I don’t know why my rotis never puff up. My mother in India uses an iron skillet on which she keeps the roti for 5-10 seconds and then uses a ‘chimtaa’ or pair of tongs to keep the roti directly under the flame where it puffs up very well. But mine are always flat. Does the quality of flour also matter? I live in France.


  41. hello !!
    i tried the recipe was great to make it im from south america and we dont have this kind of bread ,, was very easy to make and tastes very good ,, i really loved it ,, thank you for your recipe Manjula.

  42. I’m testing this recipi right now 🙂
    I got the tip from a swedish online community.
    Your website is great. My goal is to test everything here, starting with Roti.
    Ceep up the good work!
    /Louisa in Sweden

  43. Hi Manjula Aunty,

    Thank you so much for this recipe and video. I am a student in US and tried making rotis first time and they turned out great with your help!!

    Thank you!

  44. Thank you so much! A son recently married into an Indian family. I need to learn how to cook the meals for future grandchildren. Also, roti helps to prevent bloating of my stomach and cuts down on craving for bread after eating only two. Thank you so much, I am going to practice cooking some roti now after seeing the mistakes I made before seeing your video.


  45. I noticed that some of your recipes have different video instructions and different printed instructions.

    For example when I read the instructions to make roti its says makes 8, use 1 cup flour and 1/2 cup water,
    while your video makes 4, use 1/2 cup flour and 1/2 cup water…

    This really makes this confusing for a beginner, please correct whichever recipe is not right…


    1. Hello Samira,
      Sorry, in first few videos, I have made some obvious mistakes. I do try that video instructions and printed instructions stay same, still I do make mistakes.
      About roti ½ cup flour and ¼ cup water or 1 cup flour and ½ cup water. But still take the water measurement as a guide line. Depends on flour some time it can be little more or less.

  46. I LOVE THIS BREAD! Because I love to eat natural foods this is the bread for me. It has few ingredients and is tasty as well. My daughter can’t get enough. We make it 3 times a week and have it for breakfast or lunch.
    Thanks a bunch 🙂

  47. Dear Manjula Aunti,

    Thank you very much for this recipe.
    I recently shifted with my husband to a new house where we have electric stove. And we realised we could never make chapatis on it, as traditional chapatis require fire to puff up. We had lost all hope.

    But thanks to your recipe we found on internet ! We tried it and the chpatis came out very good. Now we make chapatis every other day 🙂 Thanks very much !

    Also I have noticed that none of your recipies contain onion & garlic. We don’t eat onions and garlic and so your recipies are just what we were lokking for. Thanks , all your recipies are wonderful !

    1. Hello Aarti,
      you can still make the roti traditional way. if you have electric stove use cake cooling rack over the burner and make roti over like you will on gas stove. Cooling rack prevents roti not to stick to burner. Good luck

  48. aunty ur the cutest..;-) thank you so much for all ur recipes..i tried ur aloo paratha and roshogolla..both turned out great….
    i never even dreamt that i could make those..thank u so much…hugs!

  49. Wow! I love your website. I am so glad I found it. I was looking for a good chapati recipe, and I’m so excited that it comes with video instruction. I am also happy to see that you have an electric range, because I watched relatives making it over a gas stove, but I only have an electric stove. I am excited about trying to make my first batch. Thank you!!!!

  50. Hello Aunty,
    I have the round rolling stone from india for the past 5 years. I bought a big rolling pin from a local American store. Its very good but too big for my stone base. I see from your video, you have a rectangular mat. Looks like a plastic sheet to me. Is it reusable or disposable. Advice me on what and where to buy.

  51. I am an Indian cuisine lover. With your videos that I discovered yesterday I made roti. Watching you everything looks so easy but the result I got, was not the best one. Roti did not puffed up, so probably it is why they were more similar to a chewing gum than to Indian bread. I have read all the above comments and now I know more (I think). Tomorrow I will try to make roti again, I hope it will be a successful attempt. Thanks for all your recipes, they are great! All the best for you.

  52. hi
    i am from india, i have a question that how long roti can be fresh in refrigerator, as my husband is going on tour for one month and he wants me to pack some rotis for his meal.

  53. This is highly informative. I like people who also give storage information as well. There is this alternative to samosas which I once saw on ITV whereby some batter like dough (in between runny and non sticky) was used to coat filling. It was but on palm, they put filling in then wrapped it around filling into a ball shape. I couldn’t quite get everything properly as the ingredients and name moved too fast across the screen and I had caught it in the middle already. Must be something that is served during some occasion. The channel is moslem but the ladies who do recipes are Indian. Please if you can send me recipe or show it here I will be grateful.


  54. Dear Manjula,
    your tacit knowledge is the best. I have tried for years to make roti, but alas it could stone a dog. Now, with your lovely video, my rotis puffed and were soft and delicious. I used a Lodge logic cast iron round griddle. Definitely have to let others know about your website.

  55. if your pan is hot enough, but not too hot the Roti will puff, I also use a cast iron fry pan; it works the best. when you flip the Roti
    Roti-just lightly touch it with an egg turner in a circular motion it will puff.

    1. Chapati is the unleavened bread made in India to eat with food, not much different than the unleavened breads (such as Pita bread or Lavash) cooked and eaten with meals throughout much of the Middle East and Asia. Chapati just happens to be the name used in northern India and typically it is rolled out to about 6 to 8 inches in diameter, but can be larger.

    1. hmm… at the third flip you kind of press down with a cloth.. and then it would puff up (or swell). (you flip right after you see it getting some minor bubbles..)

      1. oh and gotta make sure the dough is not too soft or too hard.. about the pressing to make it puff; never press to hard or too much because roti might become hard and flat.

    2. hey joe
      it depends on many things…like maybe the dough wasn’t soft enuf….or u didn’t roll the roti evenly(not the shape but thickness shud be equal)…or u didn’t flip it at the right time…or u din’t try to swell it at the right time….normally u shud try to swell it up we u have flipped it twice and see some bubbles…press the roti lightly with a cloth,paper towel or even a plastic flat spatula..depending on ur comfort…..hope this works for u..

  56. Dear Manjula ji,

    I was wondering what surface you used to roll the Rotis on. Thank you for posting such nice and helpful videos. I am hooked to your website.


  57. I am so happy to have found this site. Can I use white all purpose flour for this recipe?
    I only ask because my kids to not like whole wheat.

    Thank you!

  58. Hello Manjula,

    I’ve tried many ways of making rotis and i always have trouble making it puff up and keeping it light. I also have a hard time with the dough shrinking back after rolling it out. Is there any advice you could please give me?

    Thank you very much! I love your website!

  59. nice 2 hear that u r from U.P. By the way,can i know from which dist do u belong to since i m also from U.P. and always enjoying with ur recipes…..Great job keep it up..

  60. Namaste Manjula Kaku (Aunty),
    I have seen your various receipes on youtube & immediately tried Bhendi Masala which turned out to be very delicious.
    The Most Appreciable thing about your receipes is that they are very simple to cook & involve least & common ingredients.
    Another surprise in your receipes is that they all are without onion & garlic but still taste the best.

    I wish you a very great success in your Cooking Career. Can I know where do you stay in US?
    Do you conduct cooking classes also?

    Looking forward to your reply.

    Thanks & Luv,

      1. Namaste Manjula Kaku,
        Thanks for your quick reply….i know how busy you must be replying for so many queries…
        I need your advice on Durum wheat flour which is made of Durum Wheat & Wheat Bran. I know you have clarified elsewhere
        to use Durum whole wheat but our package does not say Whole wheat. The problem is this flour is very sticky while
        kneating the dough & goes difficult while rolling Chapatis. Can you give a tip on avoiding this stickyness?

  61. Manjulaji,

    I’ve been following and using your recipes for a while now, and I’m a big fan of your youtube channel! I have a couple of questions: Can I use durum wheat flour to make rotis? why not? Also, if I want to refrigerate the rotis, how do I keep them soft while reheating? they tend to become hard and chewy..

  62. Namaste Manjula!
    thank you for this easy to follow chapati recipe. I have 2 questions: my chapatis do not seem to puff all over. What should i do?
    do chapatis freeze well?

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