LoadingAdd to favorites

Roti, Chapati (Flat Indian Bread)

5 from 1 vote


Roti also known as Chapati or Fulka, is Indian flat bread made with whole wheat flour. In North India, roti is part of the main meal. Roti is served with a variety of cooked vegetables, lentils, and yogurt.
Course Main Course
Cuisine Indian
Prep Time 5 minutes
Cook Time 10 minutes
Total Time 15 minutes
Servings 2 people


  • 1/2 cup whole-wheat flour (chapati ka atta)
  • 1/8 tsp salt
  • 1/4 cup water (use as needed)
  • 1/4 cup whole wheat flour (for rolling the roti)
  • 2 tbspa clarified butter or ghee (for buttering the roties)


  1. Mix flour, salt, and water to make soft dough, adding water as needed. Knead the dough for about one minute on a lightly greased surface to make it smooth and pliable. Cover the dough with a damp cloth and set aside at least ten minutes.


  2. Divide the dough into four equal parts. Make smooth balls and press flat. Before rolling the roti press both sides of the ball on a dry floured surface to make them easy to roll.

  3. Roll to form a six-inch-diameter circle. Use just enough dry flour to roll the roti, as too much flour will make them dry. If the dough sticks to the rolling pin or rolling surface, lightly dust the rotis with dry flour.
  4. Heat an iron or heavy skillet on medium high heat. To test, sprinkle a few drops of water on the skillet. If the water sizzles right away, the skillet is ready. Place the one roti into the skillet. When the roti start to change color and start puffing flip it over. There will be some golden brown spots.

  5. Flip again after a few seconds. Using a flat spatula, press lightly on the puffed parts of the roti. This will help the roti puff up. Flip the roti again, until it has light golden-brown spots on both sides.
  6. Repeat the same process for remaining roties. Butter the roti, the side that is facing the skillet.
  7. Place the rotis in a container lined with a paper towel. Cover the container after each roti.

Recipe Notes

Roti can be kept outside for up to 2 days wrapped in aluminum foil or in a closed container. For later use, roti can be refrigerated for 5-6 days. Re-heat in a skillet

Please Subscribe to my YouTube channel

308 thoughts on “Roti, Chapati (Flat Indian Bread)

  1. Hello Manjula,
    I need help making the roti’s for my doubles. Is it the same recipe or different? Any hints on the Chana for the doubles?

    Thank you ,


      1. Two(double) small rotis folded with Chana massala pepper sauce like a sandwich. Tinidad and Guyanese Favorite. I’m trying to get the rotis just right.

  2. Thank you so much for posting your videos and recipes. It helps so much and you’re such a great teacher. I made the roti tonight and it was great πŸ™‚ Your site — like you — is a treasure! Thank you!

  3. Dear Manjula

    What a treasure your cooking videos are. Thank you so much for your kind sharing of your skills and recipes. I will be here often!

  4. Hello Aunty,
    What is the brand of whole wheat flour that you are using to make these wonderfully puffed rotis. Not even a single day goes by without browsing your recipies. God bless you.

  5. oh, manjula! i have been making roti for years, but never achieved the signature balloon like puff until watching your video. it was like magic in my kitchen last night. learning through your videos feels like i am a tot learning by your side. i am so grateful! please keep up the good work.

  6. Hello Aunty

    I tried very hard to make nice rotis but they dont seems to look as good as yours… and no bubble :-/
    Now I think its coz I use oil for frying and you dont!
    Today I will try again as you shown on video… wish me luck

  7. hello Manjula, your recipes are delicious, and the amount of effort and time you spend on this website is amazing!

    I have a quick question. I can not seem to find a direct answer.

    What is the difference between Naan, Paratha, and Chapati?


    1. Hi Alex:
      Naan: bread dough is made with yeast and allowed to raise. The naans are BAKED in an oven, not cooked in a griddle on top of the stove. Naan are puffier because of the yeast. You can spread ghee on one side after it’s done cooking.

      Parantha: dough is made with water, wheat flour, and oil or ghee are added for richness. They are cooked on a griddle on top of the stove. As they cook, oil or ghee are drizzled on the parantha for golden color and crispness. While cooking, they are pressed down with a spatula to prevent them from puffing up.

      Chapati: the most basic Indian bread made with water and wheat flour. They are cooked on a griddle on top of the stove. When they have cooked on both sides, they are briefly put directly onto the stove flame to puff up (if you have a gas stove). You can spread a little ghee on one side after they are cooked.

      All breads are best served promptly after cooking. You can keep them longer (ie waiting for guests to arrive) by wrapping them in foil so they don’t get hard.

      Jaya A.

  8. Auntyji,
    They look so good. Please tell what brand of wheat flour do you use. I have tried so many brand, but my Chapattis come out hard.

    1. Hello Sony,
      Sorry, Making roti on low heat, using too much dry flour while rolling, dough is not knead enough or dough is not very soft all these things can make roti dry.
      I will do the another video soon on roti and talk little more making dough and rolling.

  9. Hello

    I tried your recipe but I must be doing something wrong, i’ve made Roti’s before back home in the UK but here they seem to come out crispy πŸ™ I purchased some whole wheat flour and used that (it isn’t white whole wheat… just regular, does that make a difference?) and I do not have a skillet so I used a wide, non stick frying pan – other than that, i followed your directions… For some reason they didn’t puff up when I was cooking them and like i said they were all crispy. Am i rolling them too thin? Am I using too much flour? Do you have any tips as to how i can get the Roti soft? What am i doing wrong?

    Thanks so much for your help, i’m hoping practice will make perfect πŸ™‚

  10. Thanks for your recepi..i stay at Malaysia. Recently my mom fall sick(Diabetis), the doctor recommend her to eat chapati, i already bought the ingrediants, tonight will try to cook, hope will sucess..Thank you

  11. hi, a big thank you for sharing you recipes, im english but love to cook indian foods, i have made rotis before but have just learnt a few tips. i will be trying more of you recipes as my family love them.
    thanks angel

  12. 伯母 (Aunty in Chinese),
    I’m an American girl living in China. Bread in China is often sweet so it makes good breakfast food. But, it is too sweet for other recipes. Ovens are NOT common here so your Roti recipe is WONDERFUL! Now I can make bread! Thank you so much for your hard work! Next, I will try to make Gulab jamuns!
    θ°’θ°’ thank you,
    Alexandra (εΌ ι›…θŽ‰οΌ‰

  13. Hai miss. manjula,
    all of your recipes are really good. i have a question for you what kind of sheet that you are using to roll the rotis please let me know.

    geetha r

  14. Hello Manjula Aunty,
    All your receipes are amazing and the food turns out absolutely awesome. Have tried most of your receipes. Looking forward for more receipes!!!

  15. Woo!
    I was able to get them to puff.
    I used all purpose flour this time. My wheat is a pastry flour and i think i didn’t develop the gluten enough. I added a dash of curry powder to them… yummy.

    namaste ji!

  16. Dear Madam,

    I just saw your site through the you tube. I really like your way of showing the recipes through videos and i feel as if am in a cookery class.
    Most importantly i should mention the way you give tips which makes us to enhance our cooking. Hats off to you madam and i hope you keep going with more recipes in future.

  17. Thank you so much for your wonderful web site!
    I love to cook and when i am camping I don’t have my oven with me to make bread. I think these are going to be a big hit next summer if i can get them to work. πŸ™‚
    I just tried tonight and they didn’t puff much… the bread had two skins, and could be peeled apart, but not the beautiful puffing you achieve. from other comments it’s likely that i didn’t knead enough. My dough was fairly delicate and didn’t lift as easily as yours. The video said 1/2 cup water, but I see that that should be 1/4 cup. (or generically 2 parts flour to 1 part water if you don’t have a measuring cup.) For those looking for a smooth surface, I used a plastic cutting mat (back side, was smooth, without any knife scores.) I think i purchased 3 for $1.
    A silicon baking sheet was also mentioned, but much more expensive.

    Thanks again!
    namaste ji!

  18. Hi Monica,
    That’s great that you tried roti. DON’T get discouraged. Roti making is an acquired art! The more you make them the quicker you will improve. Making the dough and rolling are just something that improves with practice.

    To make them thicker, start with a larger ball of dough and don’t over-roll it. As it gets thinner, lift it into your hands and check the thickness. If it’s too thick, give it another roll or two and check again.

    Good luck, Jaya

  19. Hello Auntie..I made roti today for the first time and they did not puff up..They were to thin and a little crispy..How can i make them thicker?

  20. hello aunty,
    can u tell me how to preserve chapathi for a week.
    my plan is to make excess chapathi on weekend,so that on weekdays whn i come home after work,just heat chappati n eat.

  21. hey auntie,
    thanks so much for this recipe, i am a starter with indian cooking i want to learn because my fiance is indian and you made roti so easy to make.

  22. Hi Emily,
    Rice rotis are south Indian which is a whole cooking style of its own. Very delicious, but quite different from north Indian cooking that you see here.
    Now you have a good excuse to go back to India. πŸ™‚

  23. I really enjoy your videos, they make it easy to understand the process of cooking for my Indian husband. I was wondering if you had a recipe for Rice Rotis. When I visited my husbands family in Bangalore and Mercera, they made delicious rice rotis, but I couldn’t get the hang of it. or remember the recipe. Thanks!

  24. Hi Lena,
    If you don’t have a measuring cup, then use a tea cup to measure the flour and slowly add water while mixing until the dough starts to form.

    When possible, try to purchase a set of measuring cups and measuring spoons. It will make using these recipes MUCH easier and more accurate.

  25. Dear Manjula!
    I’m from Viet Nam, I very like Indian foods and need more learn to make all recipes of yours
    In this recipe of Roti, Chapati, because I only have the scale, don’t have the cup: 1 cup flour = 140g, 1/2 cup water = 120ml are OK ?
    If it’s right, I think the dough is very wet, because I always make 100g flour and 55 or 60ml water is maximum. Thanks

  26. hi aunty,
    i was wondering what you use as a surface to roll out your rotis. i have a chakla belan but i liked your flat surface. what is it? where can i get it?

  27. Thank you so much Manjula for your great website and especially the instructional videos! I have made the Chapati 3 times now and each time the whole process gets easier and they turn out better and better. I just wanted to add that I use a very heavy, large, cast-iron skillet. I noticed my first Roti would always turn out best and puff up huge, but next ones wouldn’t as much or at all. It seems that some excess flour would come off each Roti as I cook them in pan and would burn holes in the next Rotis, so the air would escape and they would not puff up. So now I use an all copper scrubber in between each Roti cooking and they all seem to puff up now. This cast iron skillet also seems to get very hot on my electric stove, so I have to keep it at medium to med-high. Just thought I would add my experience and hope this may help someone that is having similar problems as I did with holes being made in the Rotis and then causing them to not hold the steam. You really have to keep at it and experiment with what you have to use because everything is a little different in everyone’s home kitchen!

    Thank you!!!



  30. This recipe, like all of yours, is so easy to follow, and the results are assured. I only wish I could roll them out like you do. What a skill!
    Thank you for posting so many great instructional videos. They are especially helpful for those of us who are just learning with the spices and techniques of India/Nepal/Tibet/etc.
    Chapatis and tamarind chutney turned out great.

    Thanks again

  31. In my experience, the only reason a roti is square is because it takes plenty of practice to roll them out to be round.

    I doubt they are making them square on purpose. It’s just the shape that comes out if they don’t roll out round. But they should still taste good!

  32. Hi Poonam,
    What aunty is using is called a ‘Non-stick Rolling Mat”. They are made of silicone and have an ultra smooth surface so that you can roll out things like dough without it sticking.

    Williams Sonoma stores sell them in their stores and on-line. You can search on the web too for other U.S. stores that carry them. You can also try specialty cooking/baking stores. Ask for the non-stick rolling mat and they should be able to tell you quickly if they sell it or not. Good luck. πŸ™‚

  33. Dear Aunty,
    Thanks for this recipe, can u let me know what board were u using to roll ur rotis on coz I also have a tile counter top in my kitchen and where can I find the same as u are using. I live in San Diego, CA

  34. Thanks Manjula ji!
    I have 3 Indian roommates from MP and they were very surprised by my aloo paratha and chapati cooking skills. Because your videos and recipies I actually make these breads better than my roommates can. πŸ˜€

  35. Try to use the wheat flour sold by Indian grocers because it is ground to the fineness needed for Indian breads. Wheat flours from American grocery stores or health food stores may be too coarse because they are intended for bulkier bread baked with yeast.

    If your in a bind and don’t have Indian wheat flour, try half regular wheat flour and half white flour mixture.

    As in my other replies, locate either an Indian grocery store tha you can drive to once every few months, or if that’s not possible locate one that does mail orders.

  36. Dear Ms Manjula,
    I’m a “househusband” from Vigo (Galicia).I’ve just found your website and I think it is fantastic, full of interesting receips and tips. Today I’ve done chapati and rasgulla and they were a success!!. My wife and daughters liked them very much. Rasgulla is very similar to our “requeixo” (curd cheese) when mixed with sugar, cream and whipped. My elder daughter (6) has stuffed her chapati with tomato and potato omelette and she has enjoyed it really!!
    Thank you so much for sharing your knowledge!,

  37. Hi Manjula,

    Thank you for your recipe and the video. I made roti twice by following your instruction. It came out really good. I love it.
    I love roti. But most of the time, I bought it. Unil I found your website and tried to make it. Wow…it was so good and very easy to make. I also introduced your website to my friends too.

    Again…thank you.

  38. Hi there
    Thanks so much for a great website for us novices. Could you please tell me how well far in advance I can make these rotis and if I can roll them out and freeze them?
    I really think your recipes are quick and easy to follow. Great work!

    South Africa

  39. hello madam, i have great interest in all your recipes. I read them and do them and enjoy. I want to know the recipe of sweet puffed roti of toor dal or say puran poli (in gujarat). Can you please help me for this recipe. Thank you.

  40. Hi Manjula,
    I was very happy to discovered your website recently. So far I have tried the potato curry and chapati recipes. Both turned out good.
    Thank you and the video makes it a lot easier to learn.

    But my chapati did no puff up as much as your when I lightly press on the puffed parts. It did puff up on some parts and when I lightly press on those parts, it did not make the other parts puff up.

    Do you know what I am doing wrong? Thanks

  41. To Maheen:
    Usually my first roti is the test roti. Cook one, depending on whether or not it puffs up, adjust the heat before cooking more.

    Also, you have to figure out your own stove. One stove may cook roti well on medium high, while another person’s stove may need to be on high to be equal to the medium high of the first person’s stove.

    Keep experimenting with temperature and see if that helps.

  42. Hi Manjula,

    I made roti last night, but they did not puffed like your, I have electric oven just like yours, wondering what heating temprature do you set to make roti?

  43. Hi Manjula,
    Thank you for websit you make our family hapy
    I all the evening bakeing roti and naan for them

  44. Hi Manjula,
    I just wanted to thank you for your great recipes! Especially the “Roti, Chapati (Flat Indian Bread)”. My baking class and I made it and it turned out SOO good! πŸ™‚ Everyone wanted some! πŸ™‚
    Thanks again,

  45. Hi Manjula.. I just wanted to thank you for all your wonderful recipes! I tried this recipe but also added 1/4 cup of milled flaxseed for added health benefits (I also used whole wheat flour) and made the dough (a little extra water was needed). They cooked up fine but did not puff up while cooking. Did I maybe roll them too thin? Do you think the flax seed flour keep them from puffing? They still taste fine but was looking for them to do what yours did. What do you think went wrong?

  46. Hi Manjula,

    how can I make big number of Chapati or Paratha (30 to 40) some hours before guests will come and have them as fresh, hot and good as if they just came out of the pan?


  47. Hi Manjula,

    I am a big fan of your recipes.
    Please let me know which brand of wheat flour do you use ?
    Is it golden temple / Pillsburry or what ?

    Thank You,

  48. Folks in the Atlanta, GA area may want to know they can find chapati flour in small quantities at DeKalb Farmers’ Market, sold in plastic tubs alongside all the other flours. This is great for those of us who don’t want to buy a huge sack ! That said, I have made chapatis with King Arthur White Whole Wheat flour, and they have worked well.

  49. A hint for all readers, in Indian grocery stores, you can ask for “Atta Flour”. I’ve also had good results with “Sharps Flour”, which is a grade (fineness) that they mill the flour to.

  50. Lee, Rotis become hard because after each individual roti is made, they should be covered immediately so the steam keeps the rotis soft. The reason your rotis may not puff because the dough is not knead enough and may be dough should have been little softer.

  51. hi there manjula
    i have tried exactly this way you show but my roti dont puff up at all and when i take them out the pain they are nice but hard like crunchy flat biscuit
    what have i done wrong?

  52. Hi Manjula,

    First, I love your website and your YouTube videos – thank you for sharing them!

    I just tried your roti recipe. I used stone ground (a course grain) whole wheat flour. I think it is too heavy for this recipe as my roti came out very solid and would not puff. Am I correct in thinking you are using a finely ground whole wheat flour? I will try again using a finer whole wheat flour and post my results.

    Thank you!!

  53. Manjula,

    Thank you very much for this recipe — I couldn’t have done it without your very instructional video and I cannot wait to try your naan recipe. If I wanted to make onion or chile naan, when would I add those to the bread?

    Also, for rolling the roti, I did it by hand, but next time, I think I’m going to simply use my pasta rolling machine … I will try to remember to let you know the results.

  54. Dear Manjula Aunty:

    Do you have any recommendations for a roti maker, that you know works well/does not overheat, etc.

    Thanks for your opinion.



  55. Hi Manjula Aunty,

    Thanks a lot for posting yummy recipes on your website.
    I prepared rotis as per your recipe, and the rotis cme out very good.
    But then, I am unable to roll the rotis with the same ease as you do. I agree it is a matter of experience:) But then, I need to press the dough in dry flour atleast thrice, otherwise it starts sticking.
    Is there anything wrong with my dough (I mean is it too soft)? Or am I pressing the rotis too hard?
    It would be of great help if you could post a detailed video on pressing the rotis, so that I can benefit from the same.


  56. Thank you for all your wonderful recipes and sharing them with us!

    It would be great if there was an option to Print the recipe, or a Print view.

    Peace and joy!

  57. Hello Sue, can be few reason, are you covering the roti after making each, may be dough is too hard, need to knea the dough more, skillet is not hot enough. these are some reason I can think.

  58. Manjula, I believe I am following the recipe but my rotis don’t puff up and they come out very crispy…like crackers…what am I doing wrong?

  59. Loved your video and recipe… can’t wait to try it. I just got back from Trinidad where my mother in law made roti and used a microwave to puff it up. Wish I had the complete recipe but I will let you know when she visits me in the Bronx. Are you familiar with this way of puffing the roti?

  60. Would chapatis come out well with all-purpose flour??

    I’m not sure I can find whole wheat flour in South America =(


  61. Dear Manjula.

    I think you should make a cook book.

    Where did you learn all your skills?

    You are so talented.


  62. Thank you very much Manjula!
    Learning how to cook Inidan food add an another layer of the understanding different culture and people who broaden my perspectives. Please keep posting your video!
    By the way, if you are planning to visit Tampa, FL. Please be my guest.

    Thanks again.

  63. Hello Adrian, you can use the whole wheat flour you buy from any grocery store. It will be darker in color and will be little more coarse but roti will be good another thing you have to be careful just make the dough 10 to 15 minutes before you will make roti othwise dough will start changing the color.

  64. Dear Manjula,

    I am curious to know that regular wheat flour from any grocery stores can be used as a substitute. I went to an Indian grocery store to buy whole wheat flour named “golden temple(?)”, it was little bit out of my price range(about $10).

    Thank you very much!

  65. Roti should be little thicker then Papadam. Dough for roti should be soft and well knead. After each roti cover it, roties steam keep the roti soft otherwise they will be dry.

  66. Sadly the video is no more available. Could you please upload again? Is it true that if we keep the dough longer, rotis are more soft?

  67. Hi manjula,

    i am so glad that you started a web site i am so happy abt this. I am a regular visitor of your recipies in you tube.

    I have few question regarding chapthi

    1. how thick the chapathi should be rolled out?
    2. after preparing chapathis they get dry out and become hard how can i prevent it and keep it soft for an hour atleast
    3. only some of my chapathis blow like a baloon but others dont blow up whats the problem with my preparation.

    Please help me out i want to be a good chapathi maker πŸ™‚


  68. Hi Manjula,

    Thank you very much for the wonderful recipes! The Indian kitchen is very popular in Belgium, we looove it!

  69. woW. it’s dat easy. i’m going to start doing it myself. i love this stuff with curry or sardines dats how we serve it in malaysia…. oil less and gr8 for diet. i’m loving it

  70. Dear Manjula ,

    First of all i want to say you have a very nice site were people can learn much from the indian cithen , but i have a qustion , i alway’s try to make chapati but from the moment i put it in the fire there are no bubbels coming on the chapati so it don’t go as a balloon like in the movie you show on this site , what i do wrong , i have also a special chapati pan one that i bring with me from india but in that one its also not working..
    The flour that i use is weat flour i by that one here in Belgium in a indian shop but the different on my flour is more brown and yours look very white..
    Please can you help me..

    Best regards

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.